Selected Publications


Varshney, A., Munns, M. E., Kasowski, J., Zhou, M., He, C., Grafton, S. T., Giesbrecht, B., Hegarty, M., & Beyeler, M. (2024). Stress affects navigation strategies in immersive virtual reality. Scientific Reports14(1), 5949.


He, C., Boone, A. P., Hegarty M. (2023). Measuring configural spatial knowledge: individual differences in correlations between pointing and shortcutting. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review


He, C., Chrastil, E. R., & Hegarty, M. (2022). A new psychometric task measuring spatial perspective taking in ambulatory virtual reality. Frontiers in Virtual Reality. DOI:

Kasowski, J., and Beyeler, M. (2022). Immersive virtual reality simulations of bionic vision. AHs'22: Augmented Humans Conference 2022, pp.1-12. DOI:

Rasla, A., & Beyeler, M. (2022, November). The relative importance of depth cues and semantic edges for indoor mobility using simulated prosthetic vision in immersive virtual reality. In Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (pp. 1-11).


Yu, S., Boone, A. P. He, C., Davis, R. C., Hegarty, M., Chrastil, E. R. &  Jacobs, E. G. (2021). Age-related changes in spatial navigation are evident by midlife and differ by sex. Psychological Science, 32(5), 692-704.

Kasowski, J. Wu, N. and Beyeler, M. (2021). Towards Immersive Virtual Reality Simulations of Bionic Vision. Proceedings of the Augmented Humans (AHs) International Conference 2021: virtual. DOI:


Boone, A.P., Maghen, B. & Hegarty, M. (2019). Instructions matter: Individual differences in navigation strategy and ability. Memory & Cognition. PDF 

Chrastil, E. R., Nicora, G. L., & Huang, A. (2019). Vision and proprioception make equal contributions to path integration in a novel homing task. Cognition, 192.

Gunalp, P., Moossaian, T., & Hegarty, M. (2019). Spatial perspective taking: Effects of social, directional, and interactive cues. Memory & Cognition, 1-13.

Makransky, G., Terkildsen, T. S., & Mayer, R. E. (2019). Adding immersive virtual reality to a science lab simulation causes more presence but less learning. Learning and Instruction, 00, 000-000.


Boone, A.P., Gong, X & Hegarty, M. (2018). Sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency. Memory & Cognition. PDF 

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning science in immersive virtual reality. Journal of Educational Psychology. PDF

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Aselcioglu, I., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2017). Individual differences in human path integration abilities correlate with gray matter volume in retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. eNeuro, 4(2), doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0346-16.2017

Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2017). Rotational error in path integration: Encoding and execution errors in angle reproduction. Experimental Brain Research 235, 1885-1897. PDF 


Afifi, W. A., Gangi, K., Blascovich, J., Afifi, T. A., Cornik, J., Merrill, A., Ryan, W., Sterling, K. (2016). Mothers' impact on their daughters' cardiovascular reactivity in a high-threat context: An immersive virtual environment study. Human Communication Research, 42, 371-395.

Barrett, T. J., & Hegarty, M. (2016). Effects of interface and spatial ability on manipulation of virtual models in a STEM domain. Computers in Human Behavior65, 220-231.

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2016). Which way and how far? Tracking of translation and rotation information for human path integration. Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3636-3655. PDF 

Shine, J. P., Valdés-Herrera, J. P., Hegarty, M., & Wolbers, T. (2016). The human retrosplenial cortex and thalamus code head direction in a global reference frame. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(24), 6371-6381. doi:

Stull, A. T. & Hegarty, M. (2016). Model manipulation and learning: Fostering representational competence with virtual and concrete models. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 509- 527.


Barrett, T. J., Stull, A. T., Hsu, T. M., & Hegarty, M. (2015). Constrained interactivity for relating multiple representations in science: When virtual is better than real. Computers & Education, 81, 69-81.

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2015). There and back again: Hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex track homing distance during human path integration. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(46), 15442-15452. doi:

Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W. H. (2015). Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: Acquisition of graph knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 41(4), 1162-1178. PDF 


Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2014). From cognitive maps to cognitive graphs. PLOS ONE, 9 (11),


Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2013). Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: Acquisition of survey knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(5), 1520-1537doi: 10.1037/a0032382

Stull, A. T., Barrett, T., & Hegarty, M. (2013). Usability of concrete and virtual models in chemistry instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2546-2556. PDF 


McCall, C., Tipper, C. M., Blascovich, J., & Grafton, S. T. (2012). Attitudes trigger motor behavior through conditioned associations: neural and behavioral evidence. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 7: 841-49. PDF


Blascovich, J., & Bailenson, J. (2011). Infinite Reality. New York: HarperCollins. 


Stull, A. T., Hegarty, M., & Mayer, R. E. (2010). Anatomy learning with virtual objects. Cognitive shape processing: Papers from the AAAI Spring Symposium (pp. 39-44). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. PDF 


Hegarty, M., Montello, D. R., Richardson, A. E., Ishikawa, T., & Lovelace, K. (2006) Spatial abilities at different scales: Individual differences in aptitude-test performance and spatial-layout learning. Intelligence, 34, 151-176.

Keehner, M., Lippa, Y., Montello, D. R., Tendick, F., & Hegarty, M (2006). Learning a spatial skill for surgery: How the contributions of abilities change with practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 487-503.


Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J. & Turk, M. (2005). Transformed social interaction, augmented gaze, and social influence in immersive virtual environments. Human Communication Research, 31 (4), 511-537.


Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J. & Turk, M. (2004). Transformed social interaction: Decoupling representation from behavior and form in collaborative virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 13 (4), 428-441.

Turk, M., Bailenson, J., Beall, A., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R. (2004). Multimodal transformed social interaction. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, 46-52. PDF 


Waller, D., Montello, D. R., Richardson, A. E., & Hegarty, M. (2002). Orientation specificity and spatial updating of memories for layouts. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory & Cognition, 28, 1051-1063. PDF 


Loomis, J. M., Blascovich, J. J. & Beall A. C. (1999). Immersive virtual environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology. Behavior Methods, Instruments and Computers, 31, 557-564. PDF 

Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. & Hegarty, M. (1999). Spatial knowledge acquisition from maps, and from navigation in real and virtual environments. Memory & Cognition, 27, 741-750. PDF