Selected Publications


Yu, S., Boone, A. P. He, C., Davis, R. C., Hegarty, M., Chrastil, E. R. &  Jacobs, E. G. (2021). Age-related changes in spatial navigation are evident by midlife and differ by sex. Psychological Science, 32(5), 692-704.

Kasowski, J. Wu, N. and Beyeler, M. (2021). Towards Immersive Virtual Reality Simulations of Bionic Vision. Proceedings of the Augmented Humans (AHs) International Conference 2021: virtual.


Boone, A.P., Maghen, B. & Hegarty, M. (2019). Instructions matter: Individual differences in navigation strategy and ability. Memory & Cognition. PDF 

Chrastil, E. R., Nicora, G. L., & Huang, A. (2019). Vision and proprioception make equal contributions to path integration in a novel homing task. Cognition, 192.

Gunalp, P., Moossaian, T., & Hegarty, M. (2019). Spatial perspective taking: Effects of social, directional, and interactive cues. Memory & Cognition, 1-13.

Makransky, G., Terkildsen, T. S., & Mayer, R. E. (2019). Adding immersive virtual reality to a science lab simulation causes more presence but less learning. Learning and Instruction, 00, 000-000.


Boone, A.P., Gong, X & Hegarty, M. (2018). Sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency. Memory & Cognition. PDF 

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning science in immersive virtual reality. Journal of Educational Psychology. PDF

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Aselcioglu, I., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2017). Individual differences in human path integration abilities correlate with gray matter volume in retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. eNeuro, 4(2), doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0346-16.2017

Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2017). Rotational error in path integration: Encoding and execution errors in angle reproduction. Experimental Brain Research 235, 1885-1897. PDF 


Afifi, W. A., Gangi, K., Blascovich, J., Afifi, T. A., Cornik, J., Merrill, A., Ryan, W., Sterling, K. (2016). Mothers' impact on their daughters' cardiovascular reactivity in a high-threat context: An immersive virtual environment study. Human Communication Research, 42, 371-395.

Barrett, T. J., & Hegarty, M. (2016). Effects of interface and spatial ability on manipulation of virtual models in a STEM domain. Computers in Human Behavior65, 220-231.

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2016). Which way and how far? Tracking of translation and rotation information for human path integration. Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3636-3655. PDF 

Shine, J. P., Valdés-Herrera, J. P., Hegarty, M., & Wolbers, T. (2016). The human retrosplenial cortex and thalamus code head direction in a global reference frame. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(24), 6371-6381. doi:

Stull, A. T. & Hegarty, M. (2016). Model manipulation and learning: Fostering representational competence with virtual and concrete models. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 509- 527.


Barrett, T. J., Stull, A. T., Hsu, T. M., & Hegarty, M. (2015). Constrained interactivity for relating multiple representations in science: When virtual is better than real. Computers & Education, 81, 69-81.

Chrastil, E. R., Sherrill, K.R., Hasselmo, M.E., & Stern, C.E. (2015). There and back again: Hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex track homing distance during human path integration. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(46), 15442-15452. doi:

Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W. H. (2015). Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: Acquisition of graph knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 41(4), 1162-1178. PDF 


Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2014). From cognitive maps to cognitive graphs. PLOS ONE, 9 (11),


Chrastil, E.R., & Warren, W.H. (2013). Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: Acquisition of survey knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(5), 1520-1537doi: 10.1037/a0032382

Stull, A. T., Barrett, T., & Hegarty, M. (2013). Usability of concrete and virtual models in chemistry instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2546-2556. PDF 


McCall, C., Tipper, C. M., Blascovich, J., & Grafton, S. T. (2012). Attitudes trigger motor behavior through conditioned associations: neural and behavioral evidence. Social, Cognitive, & Affective Neuroscience, 7: 841-49. PDF


Blascovich, J., & Bailenson, J. (2011). Infinite Reality. New York: HarperCollins. 


Stull, A. T., Hegarty, M., & Mayer, R. E. (2010). Anatomy learning with virtual objects. Cognitive shape processing: Papers from the AAAI Spring Symposium (pp. 39-44). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. PDF 


Hegarty, M., Montello, D. R., Richardson, A. E., Ishikawa, T., & Lovelace, K. (2006) Spatial abilities at different scales: Individual differences in aptitude-test performance and spatial-layout learning. Intelligence, 34, 151-176.

Keehner, M., Lippa, Y., Montello, D. R., Tendick, F., & Hegarty, M (2006). Learning a spatial skill for surgery: How the contributions of abilities change with practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 487-503.


Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J. & Turk, M. (2005). Transformed social interaction, augmented gaze, and social influence in immersive virtual environments. Human Communication Research, 31 (4), 511-537.


Bailenson, J. N., Beall, A. C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J. & Turk, M. (2004). Transformed social interaction: Decoupling representation from behavior and form in collaborative virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 13 (4), 428-441.

Turk, M., Bailenson, J., Beall, A., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R. (2004). Multimodal transformed social interaction. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, 46-52. PDF 


Waller, D., Montello, D. R., Richardson, A. E., & Hegarty, M. (2002). Orientation specificity and spatial updating of memories for layouts. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory & Cognition, 28, 1051-1063. PDF 


Loomis, J. M., Blascovich, J. J. & Beall A. C. (1999). Immersive virtual environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology. Behavior Methods, Instruments and Computers, 31, 557-564. PDF 

Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. & Hegarty, M. (1999). Spatial knowledge acquisition from maps, and from navigation in real and virtual environments. Memory & Cognition, 27, 741-750. PDF